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Vaginal Infections: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

Women’s reproductive health is a crucial aspect of their overall well-being. Yet, it’s an area that often doesn’t receive enough attention due to societal taboos and misinformation.

As a seasoned gynecologist, Dr. Supriya Puranik, is passionate about educating women on the importance of maintaining good reproductive health. 

This comprehensive guide aims to shed light on the common vaginal infections that affect many women during their lifetime.

It delves into the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment options, and prevention strategies, with the ultimate goal of empowering women to take charge of their health.

Vaginal Infections

Types of Common Vaginal Infections

Yeast Infections

Yeast infections, also known as Candidiasis, are caused by the overgrowth of a fungus called Candida. This fungus naturally resides in our bodies but can multiply under certain conditions, leading to an infection. 

Factors like uncontrolled diabetes, hormonal imbalances, or prolonged use of antibiotics can trigger this overgrowth. The most noticeable symptoms of yeast infections include intense itching, burning sensation during urination or intercourse, and a thick, white discharge which often resembles cottage cheese.

Bacterial Vaginosis

Bacterial vaginosis is another common vaginal infection resulting from an imbalance in the natural bacteria present in the vagina. Our bodies host a delicate balance of good and bad bacteria. 

When this balance is disrupted, it can lead to bacterial vaginosis. Contributing factors can vary from douching, having multiple sexual partners, or even using intrauterine devices (IUDs). The symptoms of this infection include a fishy odor, thin gray or green discharge, and occasional itching or burning sensation.

Other Vaginal Infections


Trichomoniasis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by a single-celled parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis. It can be passed on through unprotected sexual intercourse and is more common in women than men. 

The symptoms of Trichomoniasis can range from a frothy, smelly discharge, itching or burning sensations, discomfort during intercourse or urination, to lower abdominal pain.

Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs)

While UTIs are not a vaginal infection per se, they do impact your overall genital health. UTIs typically occur when E.coli bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and multiply in the bladder, causing an infection. 

Symptoms include frequent urge to urinate, burning sensation during urination, and lower abdominal pain. If left untreated, UTIs can lead to more serious complications like kidney infections.

Common Symptoms of Vaginal Infections

Vaginal infections often come with noticeable symptoms. These can include unusual discharge varying in color, consistency, and odor; itching or burning sensations; pain during intercourse; or an abnormal smell. 

However, it’s important to note that sometimes these infections can be asymptomatic, which makes regular check-ups crucial.

Early detection and seeking medical advice can lead to effective treatment and prevent further complications.

Diagnosis of Vaginal Infections

Accurate diagnosis is vital for the effective treatment of any health condition, and vaginal infections are no different.

Depending on your symptoms, a gynecologist may recommend tests like pelvic exams, pH tests, or culture tests. These tests help identify the type of infection and guide the treatment process.


Treatment Options

The treatment for vaginal infections depends on the type and severity of the infection. Antifungal medications, either oral or topical, are often used to treat yeast infections. Antibiotics, on the other hand, can effectively treat bacterial vaginosis and UTIs. 

For specific infections like Trichomoniasis, prescription medications are used. Alongside these medical treatments, some home remedies and preventive measures can also aid in recovery and help prevent a recurrence.

Prevention Strategies

Good hygiene practices, understanding risk factors, and making necessary lifestyle changes can greatly contribute to maintaining vaginal health.

This includes wearing breathable cotton underwear, avoiding douching, practicing safe sex, and maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle.

Seeking Professional Advice

When it comes to health issues, especially those related to reproductive health, consulting a gynecologist should never be overlooked. Myths, misconceptions, or embarrassment should not hinder you from seeking medical advice. 

Open communication with your gynecologist in Pune can help address your concerns effectively and ensure you receive the right treatment.


Understanding common vaginal infections and their management is an essential aspect of women’s health education.

Let’s break the silence and stigma surrounding these issues and prioritize our vaginal health. Awareness, education, and regular check-ups are vital steps towards maintaining overall well-being. 

I encourage every woman to take charge of her health, consult with Fertility specialists in Pune regularly, and seek timely medical advice for any concerns. Remember, your health is important, and as gynecologists, we are here to help.

  • About Author

    Dr. Supriya Puranik

    Gynaecologist & IVF Specialist

Often known as the last glimmer of hope for people who have lost all hope for conceiving a child, Dr. Supriya Puranik is a leading gynaecologist, high risk obstetrician and Head of IVF & Gynaecology department at Ankura Hospital for Women & Children.

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